>>Sreenivasan: AMERICAN JOURNALISM IS FACING A DILEMMA. IT CAN’T MAKE ENOUGH MONEY FROM ADVERTISING AND SUBSCRIPTIONS TO SUSTAIN ITSELF. AS A RESULT, LOCAL REPORTING– LONG A PILLAR KEEPING COMMUNITIES INFORMED AND HOLDING THOSE IN POWER ACCOUNTABLE– IS IN SHORT SUPPLY IN CITIES AND TOWNS ACROSS THE COUNTRY. BUT THERE’S A STARTUP THAT THINKS IT HAS A SOLUTION; IT REQUIRES A WHOLE NEW WAY OF FUNDING JOURNALISM, AND IT DOESN’T INVOLVE WHAT WE TRADITIONALLY THINK OF AS MONEY REPORTER MAURICIO PEÑA IS WORKING ON A STORY ABOUT RISING PROPERTY TAXES IN A PREDOMINANTLY HISPANIC NEIGHBORHOOD IN CHICAGO.>>ESTOY TRATANDO DE HACER UNA HISTORIA SOBRE…>>Sreenivasan: THIS NEIGHBORHOOD IS PEÑA’S BEAT. HE WORKS FOR A NEW WEBSITE CALLED “BLOCK CLUB CHICAGO.” IT’S FOCUSED ON TELLING HYPER- LOCAL STORIES.>>A LOT OF LEGACY NEWSPAPERS HAVE KIND OF DISINVESTED OR HAVE, NO LONGER HAVE THE BOOTS ON THE GROUND REPORTING THAT WE ARE DOING HERE. AND WHEN YOU DON’T HAVE THAT A LOT OF THINGS GET OVERLOOKED.>>Sreenivasan: PEÑA IS RIGHT. INVESTING IN LOCAL JOURNALISM IS INCREASINGLY RARE. HE USED TO A WORK FOR A HYPER- LOCAL NEWS NETWORK CALLED DNA INFO. THE OWNER SHUT IT DOWN ABRUPTLY LAST NOVEMBER SAYING THAT EVEN THOUGH THE NETWORK, WHICH INCLUDED A WEBSITE CALLED GOTHAMIST IN NEW YORK, HAD 15 MILLION VISITS A MONTH ONLINE, IT WAS NOT ECONOMICALLY SUCCESSFUL.>>OUR OWNER JUST MADE A DECISION THAT IT WASN’T WORKING OUT.>>Sreenivasan: SHAMUS TOOMEY WAS THE MANAGING EDITOR OF DNA INFO IN CHICAGO. AFTER THE SITE WAS SHUTTERED, HE AND TWO OTHER DNA INFO EDITORS CO-FOUNDED BLOCK CLUB CHICAGO.>>WE CAN GUARANTEE THAT AT LEAST THE OLD DNA INFO AUDIENCE WILL BE INTERESTED IN US. WILL THEY PAY FOR US? IT’S UP TO US TO FIGURE THAT OUT.>>Sreenivasan: BLOCK CLUB CHICAGO IS A NON-PROFIT NEWS SITE. IT’S RELYING ON READER SUBSCRIPTIONS FOR FUNDING. IT ALSO GOT A BOOST FROM A CROWDFUNDING CAMPAIGN ON KICKSTARTER. BUT TOOMEY AND HIS CO-FOUNDERS ALSO DECIDED TO TRY SOMETHING MORE RADICAL. THEY’RE PARTNERING WITH A NEW YORK-BASED START-UP CALLED THE CIVIL MEDIA COMPANY, WHICH IS BUILDING A NETWORK, OR PLATFORM, FOR INDEPENDENT NEWS ORGANIZATIONS, INCLUDING A NEW MODEL FOR FUNDING JOURNALISM USING A TECHNOLOGY CALLED BLOCKCHAIN. IF YOU’VE HEARD OF BLOCKCHAIN AT ALL, IT’S PROBABLY BECAUSE IT’S THE TECHNOLOGY UNDERNEATH BITCOIN. BITCOIN IS THE CRYPTOCURRENCY WHOSE VALUE HAS SWUNG WILDLY, MAKING AND LOSING A LOT OF MONEY FOR A LOT OF PEOPLE. IN ITS SIMPLEST FORM, A BLOCKCHAIN IS A GIANT DIGITAL LEDGER THAT KEEPS TRACK OF TRANSACTIONS. THE RECORDS AREN’T STORED IN ANY ONE PLACE, BUT ACROSS INDEPENDENT COMPUTERS ALL OVER THE WORLD. MEANING, ITS SUPPORTERS SAY, THESE TRANSACTIONS ARE PERMANENT AND NEARLY IMPOSSIBLE TO HACK. CIVIL IS TRYING TO HARNESS THAT SAME TECHNOLOGY FOR JOURNALISM, INCLUDING CREATING ITS OWN CRYPTOCURRENCY TO HELP JOURNALISTS GET PAID FOR THEIR WORK.>>THIS ISN’T SOME KIND OF, YOU KNOW, CURRENCY SPECULATION. THIS IS ACTUALLY ABOUT SUPPORTING JOURNALISM.>>Sreenivasan: VIVIAN SCHILLER IS THE C.E.O. OF THE CIVIL FOUNDATION, WHICH IS A NON- PROFIT ARM OF THE CIVIL MEDIA COMPANY, AND SHE’S ALSO A FORMER EXECUTIVE AT “THE NEW YORK TIMES,” “N.P.R.,” AND TWITTER.>>WE’RE FACING TWIN CRISES IN JOURNALISM AROUND THE WORLD. ON THE ONE HAND THERE IS A GROWING TRUST GAP. THERE IS A– PEOPLE ARE FARTHER AND FARTHER APART IN TERMS OF WHAT SOURCES OF INFORMATION THEY BELIEVE. ON THE OTHER HAND THERE’S ALSO A FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY GAP. AT CIVIL WHAT WE’RE TRYING TO DO IS GET OUT SOLUTIONS TO BOTH OF THOSE CRISES.>>Sreenivasan: WHAT DOES BLOCKCHAIN HAVE TO DO WITH THOSE SOLUTIONS?>>SO, BLOCKCHAIN BRINGS ALONG WITH IT A NEW KIND OF ECONOMICS. AT CIVIL WE ARE ISSUING A CRYPTOCURRENCY CALLED “A CVL.”>>Sreenivasan: THIS WEEK, CIVIL IS OFFERING 34 MILLION TOKENS OF ITS CRYPTOCURRENCY TO THE PUBLIC, WHICH WILL EVENTUALLY BE TRADED ON EXCHANGES. JUST LIKE BITCOIN, THE PRICE OF EACH CVL WILL FLUCTUATE DEPENDING ON DEMAND. THE COMPANY IS AIMING TO RAISE AT LEAST $8-MILLION. AND CIVIL IS SETTING AN UPPER LIMIT AT $24-MILLION TO DISCOURAGE PEOPLE FROM SPECULATING. THE MONEY WILL BE USED BY THE CIVIL FOUNDATION TO FUND GRANTS TO JOURNALISM PROJECTS. IN ADDITION TO RAISING CASH, THE GOAL IS FOR THE CIVIL TOKEN TO TIE TOGETHER A COMMUNITY OF PEOPLE CREATING AND SUPPORTING JOURNALISM IN THE CIVIL NETWORK.>>WE ENCOURAGE EVERYONE TO SUPPORT A NEWS ORGANIZATION IN ANY WAY THEY SEE FIT. IF THEY’RE USING A CREDIT CARD OR U.S. CURRENCY THAT’S FINE. BUT ON THE BLOCKCHAIN THERE ARE ADDITIONAL WAYS THAT PEOPLE CAN SUPPORT NEWS ORGANIZATIONS THAT JUST HAVE NOT BEEN ACCESSIBLE OR AVAILABLE BEFORE. FOR INSTANCE, MICROPAYMENT OR MICROTIPPING.>>Sreenivasan: RIGHT NOW, IF YOU WANT TO TIP A WEBSITE, SAY, A QUARTER FOR AN ARTICLE YOU READ, THE SITE WOULD LOSE MONEY ON THE CREDIT CARD TRANSACTION FEES ALONE.>>ONCE YOU’RE IN A CRYPTO- ECONOMIC WORLD THERE ARE NO TRANSACTION FEES. THERE’S NO MIDDLEMAN. AND THEY CAN MAKE THOSE DONATIONS DIRECTLY TO THAT NEWS ORGANIZATION. YOU KNOW, THEY CAN GIVE THEM AS LITTLE AS A FEW CENTS TO AS MUCH AS THEY WANT.>>Sreenivasan: THE CIVIL TOKEN ALSO PLAYS A PART IN HOW THE NETWORK GOVERNS ITSELF.>>WITH YOUR TOKENS YOU HAVE A SAY IN WHO IS AND ISN’T ON THE PLATFORM.>>Sreenivasan: TOKENS ENABLE THE OWNER TO DO A FEW DIFFERENT THINGS. WITH AT LEAST $1,000 WORTH OF TOKENS, ANYONE CAN START A CIVIL NEWSROOM OF THEIR OWN. TOKENS ARE ALSO USED TO CHALLENGE A NEWSROOM IF SOMEONE BELIEVES IT VIOLATES BASIC STANDARDS OF JOURNALISM AS OUTLINED IN A CONSTITUTION THE CIVIL FOUNDATION HAS CREATED. TOKEN OWNERS THEN VOTE, USING THEIR TOKENS AS PROXIES, ON WHETHER THE OFFENDING NEWSROOM SHOULD BE REMOVED FROM THE NETWORK.>>THAT COULD BE A LEDE TOMORROW.>>I THINK SO, TOO.>>Sreenivasan: CIVIL PROVIDED A GRANT TO BLOCK CLUB CHICAGO IN CASH AND IN CVL TOKENS. EDITOR SHAMUS TOOMEY KNOWS THE TOKENS AREN’T GOING TO MAKE BLOCK CLUB CHICAGO RICH OVERNIGHT, BUT HE IS HOPEFUL THAT THE CVL TOKEN CAN BE PART OF A SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS MODEL.>>I’VE BEEN IN THIS NEWS BUSINESS A LONG TIME AND EVERY PLACE I’VE EVER WORKED WE EVENTUALLY END UP IN THE SORT OF THE SAME POSITION OF WE JUST DON’T HAVE ENOUGH MONEY. SO THE IDEA OF GOING TO A PLACE THAT HAD A NEW MODEL, A NEW IDEA, THAT WAS HUGE. YOU KNOW, IT’S A GAMBLE AT THIS POINT. YOU KNOW, WE’RE TRYING TO FIGURE THIS OUT ON THE FLY. YOU KNOW, WE’RE HOPING THAT THIS IS GOING TO BE THE ONE THAT’S GOING TO REALLY SOLVE THE PUZZLE.>>Sreenivasan: IN ADDITION TO BLOCK CLUB CHICAGO, THERE ARE MORE THAN A DOZEN NEWSROOMS THAT HAVE ALSO RECEIVED START-UP GRANTS FROM CIVIL, PARTIALLY IN THE FORM OF CRYPTOCURRENCY. THE STARTUPS RANGE FROM LOCAL NEWS OUTFITS LIKE THE “COLORADO SUN.” IT’S FOUNDED BY JOURNALISTS WHO WORKED AT THE “DENVER POST,” A NEWSPAPER THAT HAS BEEN DECIMATED THROUGH LAYOFFS. THERE ARE ALSO TOPIC-FOCUSED NEWSROOMS THAT REPORT STORIES ABOUT, FOR EXAMPLE, MONEY IN POLITICS, IMMIGRATION, AND EVEN MORE NARROW NICHES LIKE THE CANNABIS INDUSTRY. IT’S ALSO NOT JUST PRINT MEDIA.>>WELCOME TO SEASON TWO OF “ZIGZAG.” I’M MANOUSH ZOMORODI.>>Sreenivasan: MANOUSH ZOMORODI AND JEN POYANT ARE CO-FOUNDERS OF A NEW PODCAST COMPANY IN BROOKLYN, NEW YORK. THEIR FIRST SHOW IS CALLED “ZIGZAG,” WHICH EXPLORES, IN PART, HOW CIVIL WILL WORK.>>MY COFOUNDER AND I, WE LEFT OUR STABLE PUBLIC RADIO JOBS TO JOIN AN EXPERIMENT USING BLOCKCHAIN IN AN ATTEMPT TO SAVE JOURNALISM. WHAT IS BLOCKCHAIN? HOW IS IT GOING TO SAVE JOURNALISM? WE DIDN’T KNOW. SO WE THOUGHT…>>Sreenivasan: SO YOU PUT YOURSELF IN THE MIDDLE OF IT.>>EXACTLY. THAT SHOULD BE THE SHOW.>>Sreenivasan: FOR ZOMORODI, WHO PREVIOUSLY PRODUCED AND HOSTED THE PODCAST “NOTE TO SELF” FOR NEW YORK PUBLIC RADIO, CIVIL IS BOTH AN EXPERIMENT AND AN INCREDIBLE STORY.>>THIS WAS AN OPPORTUNITY TO BE IN AT THE GROUND UP. TO– I DON’T HAVE THE TECH CHOPS TO HELP BUILD IT, BUT I CAN GIVE FEEDBACK ABOUT WHAT THE HUMANS THINK OF THE ACTUAL USE OF IT. AND FOR A JOURNALIST TO BE PART OF A POTENTIAL SOLUTION, I THINK THAT’S WHERE WE ARE RIGHT NOW IN THIS COUNTRY. YOU CAN’T JUST REPORT ON IT. YOU HAVE TO FIGURE OUT HOW YOU FIX IT.>>Sreenivasan: SO WHAT HAPPENS AFTER THESE TOKENS GO OUT INTO THE WORLD?>>WELL, I DON’T KNOW. I MEAN WE’RE NOT BANKING ON IT. TO ME, THEY GIVE US AN AMAZING STORY TO TELL. THIS IS THE BEST STORY I’VE EVER COVERED IN MY LIFE AND I HAPPEN TO BE IN IT. IF IT GOES WELL, IT’S UNBELIEVABLE. IF IT DOESN’T, IT’S FASCINATING AND I…>>Sreenivasan: IT’S STILL A GOOD STORY.>>OH, YEAH, AND I HAVE A FRONT ROW SEAT. THIS IS AN AMAZING OPPORTUNITY FOR ME AS A JOURNALIST.