The difference between Socialism, Communism and Marxism and a whole lot more Explained by me, azureScapegoat There is a lot of confusion about these terms… Socialist, Communist… People are calling Obama a ‘Socialist Communist’ Without really having any proper idea of what those things mean. And this has pretty much always been a problem with Socialism and Communism It even says so in the preamble to the Communist Manifesto, written in 1848 So I’m here to tell you what all the different terms actually mean Most people in the western world, especially in America, have heard of Bernie Sanders Bernie Sanders calls himself a Socialist, and talks a lot about Scandinavian countries like Sweden and Denmark Praising them for a social welfare system which provides things like free education, healthcare and other benefits or security nets All paid for by the government. Scandinavia is, wrongly, even by a lot of people within Scandinavia itself I know because I lived there myself Called “Socialist” Bernie Sanders ran against Hillary Clinton in the Democrat Primaries in 2016 He lost the Democratic nomination to Clinton Who went on to run against Donald Trump Donald Trump talks a lot about China Specifically, the People’s Republic of China Which calls itself ‘Socialist’ With Chinese characteristics, of course Donald Trump won the Presidential Election, now making him the 45th President of the United States of America Replacing the man who came before him, Barack Obama Obama talked on multiple occasions about Guantanamo Bay Which is a military facility on the island of Cuba But, belonging to nation of the USA Cuba says that the land where the Guantanamo Bay facility is located belongs to the Cuban State Which calls itself ‘Socialist’ Do you know who else called themselves ‘Socialist’? The Nazis. ‘Nazi’ is shorthand for ‘Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei Which translates to ‘The National-Socialist German Workers’ Party’ NSDAP So, what do Sweden, Bernie Sanders, China, Cuba and the Nazis have in common? Well… In practice… Nothing! Sweden, not entirely unlike China Is a country with a mainly Capitalistic free-market system But with some government intervention and social security Paid for by the raising of taxes on those who earn more. Cuba is what many in the world would call ‘Communist’ Choosing not to rely on a private free market, but rather a public planned economy Where elected representatives make decisions about the economy That would otherwise be made by private business owners. Like where to build new factories What they should produce What the wages should be And so on. And although many in the west call Cuba ‘Communist’, Cuba calls itself ‘Socialist’! Yes, they are led by the Communist Party But even THEY say that Cuba is Socialist Not Communist And Germany, when it was ruled by the Nazis, also called itself ‘Socialist’ And although the government was a totalitarian one which dictated many things about the private lives of citizens, The economy was largely still Capitalistic and had a free market Minus some Protectionism and sanctions or embargoes here and there So, what exactly does ‘Socialism’ mean? Well, long story short, it’s a pretty vague term. It could mean pretty much whatever you want it to mean The definition of ‘Socialism’ is: “A society in which the means of production, distribution and exchange are owned by the community as a whole, rather than private individuals.” Of the examples that I brought up (Scandinavia, Bernie Sanders, Cuba and the Nazis) The only one that really fits this definition is Cuba. Because the means of production, that is Factories and other workplaces, like farms for example The means of distribution and the means of exchange are owned by the state. That is, the community as a whole. And the state is democratic, as in run by the people that live in the nation And so the people indirectly, through the democratic government, Control the means of production Distribution and exchange. Sweden, Norway and Denmark owns some of the means of production Some of the means of distribution and exchange But, I would say over 90% of the means of production in Scandinavia Are privately owned. So, the community as a whole do not control the means of production, distribution or exchange In Scandinavia. And so, Scandinavia is, for the most part, and according to most definitions of Socialism Not Socialistic. They are Capitalistic Following an ideology called Social Democracy Which we’ll talk about in a minute. So, I’ve given you the definition of ‘Socialism’ Or more accurately, I’ve given you the definition of a ‘Socialist Society’ Socialism, the ideology, is trying to achieve that kind of society. It’s what’s called an ‘Umbrella term’ Encompassing multiple other terms within it, that branch away further. So, let’s create a nice little infographic thing. We have Socialism on the left, and then Capitalism on the right. Simple enough Under Socialism, we have Communism Now, Communism is an ideology that strives to establish Communist Society Which is stateless, moneyless and, most importantly, classless Think Star Trek (Picard): The economics of the future are somewhat different. You see, Money doesn’t exist in the 24th Century (Sloane): No money?! You mean you don’t get paid?! (Picard): The acquisition of wealth is no longer the driving force in our lives We work to better ourselves And the rest of humanity Now, Communist Society should be distinguished from the Western concept of a ‘Communist State’ The latter being a Socialist State Ruled by a Communist Party For example, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the USSR The Soviet Union Was ruled by the Communist Party But the Communist Party didn’t say “Oh, the USSR is Communist” They said “The USSR is Socialist” Now, under Communism we have 2 other ideologies Anarchism and Classical Marxism I won’t talk that much about Anarchism in this video That’ll be for another time But, essentially, the difference between Marxism and Anarchism Is that Classical Marxism believes in a transition between Capitalism and Communism called ‘Socialism’ Whereas Anarchism seeks to establish Communism directly after the overthrow of Capitalism And not go through a transitionary period That said, Anarchists still count as Socialists Now, Classical Marxism splits even further Into Orthodox Marxism and Revisionist Marxism Orthodox Marxism is essentially a continuation of Classical Marxism But was developed after the death of Karl Marx Karl Marx, obviously, the founder of Classical Marxism Left a lot of his work unfinished And so Orthodox Marxists sort of picked up the torch when Marx died and continued his work and continued expanding his theories Revisionist Marxism, on the other hand, Is an umbrella term for forms of Marxism that have changed one or more fundamental parts of Marxism Social Democracy is a form of Revisionist Marxism That has changed Marxism so much that it is no longer Socialistic, but rather a ‘friendly’ version of Capitalism This is the ideology mainly followed by Scandinavia and some other European countries like France, for example There’s also Democratic Socialism Which is a term so vague that is could actually be either Orthodox and Communist, Revisionist and Communist or Revisionist and not Communist The definition of ‘Democratic Socialism’ is: An ideology which seeks to establish a society with a Socialist mode of production Alongside a democratic system As opposed to the Soviet, or Workers’ Council system of Marxism-Leninism Which Democratic Socialists generally deem undemocratic Now, some people will claim that Democratic Socialism means ‘Socialists who want to establish Socialism through Democratic means But this is not necessarily the case Yes, there are Democratic Socialists who aim to achieve their goals through elections But they can also be revolutionary Democratic Socialists Who reject participating in elections under Capitalism Because Capitalists elections are undemocratic in their eyes And they seek to establish ‘real democracy’ alongside Socialism through revolutionary means. Also note that Democratic Socialism is not the same as Social Democracy Social Democracy is pro-Capitalism Whereas Democratic Socialism is anti-Capitalism At least in theory, there are some Democratic Socialist Parties which are pretty much Social Democratic in theory But just call themselves something else Moving on, Under Orthodox Marxism, we have even more tendencies, like Luxemburgism, Leninism Trotskyism, Maoism and whole lot more These are actually not too different from eachother And so there differences are more complicated and take longer to explain So I won’t do that in this video, but perhaps at some other time. Now then, let’s recap. Socialism and Capitalism are two different things. Socialism is anti-Capitalistic, Capitalism is anti-Socialistic All Communists are Socialists, But not all Socialists are Communists Communists are either Anarchists or Marxists And some people have revised or changed Marxism into something barely even recognisable called Social Democracy Which has historical connections to Socialism and Socialist movements But is not actually Socialistic, even though it’s often called so Democratic Socialism is different from Social Democracy Because it’s actually anti-Capitalistic Which Social Democracy is not Leninism, Trotskyism, Maoism and so forth are all based on Orthodox Marxism Which is a continuation of Classical Marxism Because Marx died, leaving a lot of his work unfinished, so other people picked up the torch for him Also, despite not agreeing on everything, Anarchists and Marxists, at least Orthodox Marxists, generally can get along and work together Toward a common goal. Which is Communism If you would like to learn more about Socialism and how it works Or how it could work Or if janitors are going to be paid the same as doctors Or if it goes against human nature Or any of the other frequently-used arguments Go to Which is a website that I created in order to answer common questions And hopefully make everyone a bit more educated about what Socialism actually is There will be a link in the description that you can click If I missed something in this video, or if I got something wrong, then do feel free to leave a comment down below And I’ll try to add annotations and such or perhaps even make a new video Uhh… Later down the line Explaining something that maybe I wasn’t clear about, or something of the sort I thank you very much for watching, and I will see you next time